• CCO 410 Wine Finishing

    Filterability Index

    Today for our last lesson of 2020 we popped down to the laboratory to do a quick run through on Filterability Index. This index gives an indication of the time taken for a wine to block a specific filter type during the process of filtration. To test for filterability 1L of wine is passed through a filter and collected in a beaker at constant pressure, usually over a time period of 5 mins. A stopwatch is used to time the filter process and the volume of wine filtered in each 30 second period is recorded. The filterability index is calculated as the ratio of the volume obtained between 30 and…

    Comments Off on Filterability Index
  • CCO 410 Wine Finishing

    International Shipping

    With a large part of New Zealand wine being exported overseas, it is in the best interest of the winemaker to be well versed in the different labelling laws concerning the labelling of wines around the world. Different countries all have their own rules when it comes to labelling, some require health warnings or an indication of the amount standard drinks in the wine. Not following these rules could lead to a loss of revenue due to the need to relabel the wine bottles. As well as this certain countries have Geographical Indication which is usually a regional name, used to identify the origin of goods where its quality, reputation…

    Comments Off on International Shipping
  • CCO 410 Wine Finishing

    Bottling and Shipping

    Back to the classroom for our second to last day of studies, today we looked at the setup of a bottling line and the many different ways wine is stored and shipped in.  There are quite a few options when it comes so dispatching wine. The winemaker can have it bottled and packaged on site via own bottling equipment or a mobile bottling set up. If not the wine can be trucked off to an offsite facility, a 3rd party provider such as WineWorks. As well as these options there is also bulk wine dispatch in the form of ISO train cart containers or Flexi bag containers. 33% of NZ…

    Comments Off on Bottling and Shipping
  • CCO 410 Wine Finishing

    Indevin Visit

    Once again we left the classroom on another visit. This time we went to a large winery not far from WineWorks called Indevin. Indevin is a large scale winery dealing with a high volume of wine. It has the ability to do dispatching and packaging onsite. Due to the high volume of wine that it handles it is a bulk wine dispatcher dealing in Flexi containers. The Flexi containers are filled on site with seven being the maximum at a given time. The winery has also recently installed five hundred thousand litre tanks in order to keep up with demand. After our arrival and sign in we were met by…

    Comments Off on Indevin Visit
  • CCO 410 Wine Finishing

    WineWorks Visit

    Today we left the class room to visit a large bottling company in the region known as WineWorks. WineWorks is a contract company offering wine bottling and warehousing services for New Zealand wineries. They are deemed as a 3rd party provider of bottling and packaging services. The building boasts 5 bottling lines allowing it to handle a high volume of wine during working hours and there Warehouse capacity of 54,000 pallets. All in all a very impressive operation. Upon our arrival we were met by Michael Hearn who would be looking after us for the duration of the tour. The tour started with introductory PowerPoint on the logistics and requirements…

    Comments Off on WineWorks Visit
  • CCO 410 Wine Finishing

    Copper Fining Trials

    In the second part of our lab session we looked at the use of copper sulphate fining to remove H2S from red and white wine. The copper sulphate reacts with the H2S to form copper sulphide that is highly insoluble, therefore careful lab trials should be done before any copper sulphate additions as the residual unreacted copper can cause sulphide problems in bottled wine. The materials required to conduct the trial was 5 tasting glasses, 250ml of the wine that needed treatment and a copper sulphate stock solution and pipettes. The addition rates of the copper sulphate solution when then calculated leading to mass confusion to descend on the class…

    Comments Off on Copper Fining Trials
  • CCO 410 Wine Finishing


    Our third class for Tuesday involved the labelling of wine and different amount of information that the labels need to display when shipping overseas to places such as the EU or the USA. Labels are imperative to wine consumerism as it is essentially the face of the wine brand. It has all the information that the consumer will need to know what the wine is about and when it was made. Through this class we were introduced to the international labelling standards (OIV) which provide a guideline for standard labelling of wine bottles but each region or country may have their own standards. The OIV recommends that some of the…

  • CCO 410 Wine Finishing

    Copper Trials

    Today was our first lab session and we began with a diagnostic test for reductive wine characters also known as a cu/cd test. This test can be used to deduce the type of reductive compounds that are causing the wine to have a reductive wine fault/character. The main sources of reductive wine characteristics are Hydrogen sulphide, Mercaptans, Disulphides and Dimethylsulphides. Each of these have a distinctive aroma and the cu/cd test is used to determine which on is present. The reason this test works is because the compounds react with the different fining agents e.g. copper and cadmium salts. This test is useful as it can be used to determine…

    Comments Off on Copper Trials
  • CCO 410 Wine Finishing


    Part two of Tuesday’s class was a talk about filtration. Filtration is quite an important aspect of wine making as many wine drinkers are put off by the appearance of a cloudy wine, immediately dismissing the drink as faulty or unappetizing. Filtration is also used to stabilise the wine and also remove microorganisms. The two types of filtration are known as depth/dead end and surface such as cross flow filtration. The big difference between these two methods is that in depth filtration the wine runs perpendicular to the filter medium so that the filtered particles form a layer on the surface on the filtration medium. While in a cross flow,…

    Comments Off on Filtration
  • CCO 410 Wine Finishing

    Gas in wine

    First day back for my block course at NMIT. This time its wine finishing and analysis. Today we were in the sensory room at NMIT looking at gases in wine. The primary gases in wine are oxygen and carbon dioxide and while some small amounts of these gases are good. Too much can lead to some problems further down the wine making track. For example oxygen can be used to reduce the perception of vegetal flavors in the wine and also reduce astringency and stabilizing wine color. However too much oxygen can cause oxidation which is the browning of the wine which is a undesirable effect and forms unwanted sensory…

    Comments Off on Gas in wine

This blog is part of the NMIT Blog Network. The articles and comments in this blog are the opinion of the authors and not necessarily those of NMIT.